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Pengaruh Penggunaan Antikolinergik Terhadap Gangguan Fungsi Kognitif Pada Pasien Geriatri di Lombok Tengah, Indonesia

Dita marina Lupitaningrum , Fita Rahmawati




Geriatrics are more susceptible to the unwanted effects of drugs, such as potential cognitive impairment effects of anticholinergic drugs. This study aims to determine the effect of anticholinergic drug use on cognitive reduction in Central Lombok geriatric patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted by tracing a medical history and interview result using a Six-item Cognitive Impairment Tests (6-CIT) questionnaire to measure cognitive function. The sample size was 503 geriatric patients with 213 patients as users and 290 patients as non-users. Anticholinergic loads were determined in each patient using Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). The data of the study were analyzed using Chi-square to see the effect of anticholinergic drug use on cognitive function reduction. A total of 168 patients (78.9%) used a single anticholinergic drug. Most of anticholinergic used were level 1 (95.8%). Patients who had a total anticholinergic load of 1 were 156 people (73.2%). In the user group, 191 patients (38%) experienced cognitive reduction. The most common disease experienced by drug user was circulatory system disease (50.9%) and the most widely used drug was furosemide (45.4%). Chi-square analysis showed that anticholinergic drug had significant effect on geriatrics impairment of cognitive function (OR 2.361; CI95% 1.399-3.983; P=0.002). The use of anticholinergic drugs had an effect on cognitive reduction in geriatric patient.


Geriatri lebih rentan mengalami efek yang tidak diinginkan dari obat, seperti obat antikolinergik yang berpotensi menimbulkan efek gangguan kognitif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan obat antikolinergik terhadap penurunan fungsi kognitif pada pasien geriatri di Lombok Tengah. Penelitian cross -sectional ini dilakukan dengan penelusuran riwayat pengobatan dan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner Six-item Cognitive Impairment Tests (6-CIT) untuk mengukur fungsi kognitif. Jumlah sampel adalah 503 pasien geriatri dengan 213 pasien sebagai pengguna antikolinergik dan 290 pasien sebagai bukan pengguna antikolinergik. Beban antikolinergik ditentukan pada masing-masing pasien menggunakan Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). Data hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan Chi-square untuk melihat pengaruh penggunaan obat antikolinergik terhadap penurunan fungsi kognitif. Sebanyak 168 pasien (78,9%) menggunakan obat antikolinergik secara tunggal. Sebagian besar obat antikolinergik yang digunakan adalah level 1 (95,8%). Pasien yang mempunyai jumlah beban antikolinergik 1 adalah 156 orang (73,2%). Pada kelompok pengguna antikolinergik, 191 pasien (38%) mengalami penurunan fungsi kognitif. Penyakit yang paling banyak dialami pasien yang menggunakan obat antikolinergik adalah penyakit sistem peredaran darah (50,9%) dan obat yang paling banyak digunakan adalah furosemid (45,4%). Hasil analisis Chi-square menunjukkan antikolinergik memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap penurunan fungsi kognitif geriatri (OR 2,361; CI95% 1,3993,983; P=0.002). Penggunaan obat-obatan dengan aktivitas antikolinergik berpengaruh dalam penurunan fungsi kognitif geriatri.

Keywords: antikolinergik; kognitif; geriatri; 6-CIT, Indonesia; anticholinergic; cognitive; geriatric; 6-CIT, Indonesia

Published at: Vol 6, No 1 (2019) pages: 36-45

DOI: 10.7454/psr.v6i1.4077

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