Vol 5, No 2 (2018) > Articles >

The Development of a Questionnaire on Factors Affecting Non Adherence Behavior among Indonesian Elderly Population

Andi Makkulawu , Adji Prayitno Setiadi , Tri Budi Wahyuni Rahardjo , Eko Setiawan


Abstract: Instruments which can be used to identify factors affecting the medication adherence of elderly with  diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been discovered in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to identify factors affecting elderly patients’ medication adherence. The development of the questionnaire was conducted based on published references attained through the exploration of research evidence with several keywords and databases. Content validity and face validity test were conducted using experts’ assessment. Construct validity test was conducted based on calculated R against table R while reliability test was conducted with Chronbach’s Alpha. Present study produced a valid and reliable questionnairecomprising 35 questions in 14 subcategories from 4 factor domains with the calculated R = 0,357-0,788 andChronbach’s Alpha = 0,934.The questionnairecan be used for further research throughout Indonesia, hence a complete overview of factors affecting elderly DM patients’ medicine consumption adherencecan be obtained. The identification of factors related to the usage of DM patients’ medicine is expected to serve as a base for the government, both of state and local government, to produce policies related to health interventions to be implemented.

Keywords: questionnaire; adherence; elderly; diabetes mellitus

Published at: Vol 5, No 2 (2018) pages: 49-57

DOI: 10.7454/psr.v5i2.3881

Access Counter: 2360 views

Full PDF Download


Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. (2003). Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Avoidable cost in U.S. Healthcare: the $200 billion opportunity from using medicines more responsibility. (2013). Retrieved from IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics website: http://www.imshealth.com/files/web/IMSH%20Institute/Reports/Avoidable_Costs_in%20_ US_Healthcare/IHII_AvoidableCosts_2013.pdf

Bethel MA, Sloan FA, Belsky D, Feinglos MN. (2007). Longitudinal incidence and prevalence of adverse outcomes of diabetes mellitus in elderly patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 921-7.

Cahyadi H. (2015). Profil, faktor penyebab, dan pembuatan patient decision aids perilaku non-adherence pada pasien diabetes mellitus geriatric di puskesmas wilayah Surabaya Timur [Master degree thesis]. Surabaya: Universitas Surabaya.

Divya S, & Nadig P. (2015). Factors contributing to non-adherence to medication among type 2 diabetes mellitus in patiens attending tertiary care hospital in South India. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 8(2), 274-6.

Elliott RA. (2006). Problems with medication use in the elderly: an Australian perspective. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Reserch, 36(1), 58-66.

Field A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 3rded. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Health care in Canada, 2011: focus on seniors and aging. (2011). Retrieved from Canadian Institute for Health Information website: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/ HCIC_2011_ seniors_report_en.pdf

Jane O. (2007). Health Psychology: a textbook 4th ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Kimberlin CL, & Winterstein AG. (2008). Validity and reliability of measurement instruments used in research. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 65, 2276-2284.

Kelley HH. (1971) Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior. New York: General Learning Press.

Kirkman MS, Briscoe VJ, Clark N, Florez H, Haas LB, Halter JB, et al. (2012). Diabetes in older adults. Diabetes Care, 35, 2650-2664.

Krass I, Schieback P, Dhippayom T. (2015). Adherence to diabetes medication: a systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 32(6), 725-737.

Li R, Bilik D, Brown MB, Zhang P, Ettner SL, Ackermann, R.T., Crosson, J.C., et al. (2013). Medical costs associated with type 2 diabetes complications and comorbidities. The American Journal of Managed Care, 19(5), 421-430.

Riwidikdo H. (2013). Statistik Kesehatan Dengan Aplikasi SPSS dalam Prosedur Penelitian. Rohima Press: Yogyakarta.

Saifunurmazah D. (2013). Kepatuhan penderita diabetes mellitus dalam menjalani terapi olahraga dan diet [Bachelor degree final project]. Semarang: Universitas Negeri Semarang.

Tavakol M, & Dennick R. Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. (2011). International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55.

Wild H. (2012). The economic rationale for adherence in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Journal of Managed Care, 18 (3 Suppl), S43-S48.